الرئيسية | طب وصحة | ثاني أكسيد النيتروجين.. غاز سام للبشر ومضر للبيئة

ثاني أكسيد النيتروجين.. غاز سام للبشر ومضر للبيئة

بواسطة
حجم الخط: Decrease font Enlarge font
ثاني أكسيد النيتروجين.. غاز سام للبشر ومضر للبيئة

كشفت وسائل إعلام ألمانية أن دراسة، أجرتها مجموعة بحثية مولتها الشركات  "فولكسفاغن" و "دايملر" و "بي إم بي دبليو"  ، تسعى إلى النظر في "استنشاق الأشخاص الأصحاء لغاز ثاني أكسيد النيتروجين على المدى القصير". يأتي ذلك كنوع من الإختبارات البحثية التي تمولها الشركات المذكورة. وقالت صحيفة شتوتغارتر تسايتونغ إن نحو 25 شابا بصحة جيدة استنشقوا ثاني أكسيد النيتروجين بكميات مختلفة على مدى ساعات في معهد تابع لجامعة أخن في ألمانيا. تجربة أثارت استياء في الأوساط السياسية والإجتماعية لاسيما بعض نشر معلومات تفيد بقيام المجموعة البحثية نفسها بتجربة أخرى شملت استنشاق قردة لعادم سام من سيارة فولكسفاغن تعمل بالديزل.

 ويعتبر غاز أكسيد النيتروجين بكل أنواعه سام وضار، وهذا الغاز يمكن أن يؤدي إلى تهيج العين والجهاز التنفسي، بينما عند التعرض إليه على المدى الطويل يؤدي إلى الإصابة بأمراض القلب والأوعية الدموية أو الرئوية. ويعتبر سكان المناطق الحضرية أكثر عرضة للخطر جراء استنشاق غازات أكسيد النيتروجين. كما أن للغازات تأثير ضار على الحيوانات والنباتات والتربة. فغازات أكسيد النيتروجين منتجات ثانوية غير مرغوب فيها في محركات احتراق السيارات - وخاصة في محركات الديزل - وكذلك هو الحال عند حرق الفحم والنفط والغاز والخشب والنفايات. ويتسبب تلوث الهواء بأكثر من 400 ألف حالة وفاة مبكرة سنوياً في الاتحاد الأوروبي، عدا أولئك الذين يصابون بأمراض تنفسية وأخرى تطاول القلب والأوعية الدموية، ما يكلّف اقتصاد الاتحاد أكثر من 20 بليون يورو كل سنة، وفق المفوضية.

 

مجموع المشاهدات: 973 |  مشاركة في:

الإشتراك في تعليقات نظام RSS عدد التعليقات (0 تعليق)

المجموع: | عرض:

هل ترغب بالتعليق على الموضوع؟

التعليقات المنشورة لا تعبر بالضرورة عن رأي الموقع

من شروط النشر: عدم الإساءة للكاتب أو للأشخاص أو للمقدسات

مقالات ساخنة

الكلمات الدلالية:

لا يوجد كلمات دلالية لهذا الموضوع

قيم هذا المقال

0

إستطلاع: بنكيران و صورة حزب العدالة و التنمية

كيف كان تأثير قرارات و تصريحات بنكيران على صورة حزب العدالة و التنمية خلال ولايته الأولى ؟
sql:SELECT g.*, gp.privileges, gp.id as group_privileges_id FROM `group` AS g LEFT JOIN group_privileges AS gp ON g.id = gp.group_id AND gp.user_source='vivvo@localhost' WHERE ((g.id = '7'))
sql:SELECT a.* FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.id IN (232273)) AND (a.category_id IN (9)) ORDER BY a.id DESC
sql:SELECT u.* FROM users AS u WHERE ((u.userid IN (1)))
sql:SELECT a.* FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.id IN (232273)) ORDER BY a.id DESC
sql:INSERT INTO articles_stats (`article_id`, `last_read`, `times_read`, `today_read`, `updated`, `created`) VALUES (232273, '2019-4-23 12:21:19', 973, 1, 1, '2018-02-01 08:39:00') ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE `today_read`=IF(`last_read`<'2019-4-23', 1, `today_read`+1), `last_read`='2019-4-23 12:21:19', `times_read`=`times_read`+1, `updated`=1, `created`='2018-02-01 08:39:00'
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/system/html_header.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/header.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/explorer.html
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/top_bar.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/search.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/header_banner.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/main_nav.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/../../plugins/banner_manager/templates/box_banners.tpl
sql:SELECT * FROM zones WHERE ((id IN (21)))
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/ad_tabs.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/top_right_160_600.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/top_left_160_600.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/ticker_typer.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/mega_970.tpl
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (34)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (2)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (2)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (10)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (10)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (16)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (16)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (7)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (7)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (12)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (12)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (18)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (18)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (58)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (58)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (9)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (9)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (11)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (11)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (6)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (6)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (32)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (32)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (14)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (14)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (5)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (5)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (17)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (17)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (23)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (23)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (31)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (13)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (13)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (35)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (35)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (38)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (39)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (39)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
sql:SELECT a.title, a.SEfriendly, a.category_id, a.id FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (40)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.created DESC LIMIT 0,10
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.category_id IN (40)) AND (a.status > 0)
Box cache:Save box_article_list
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/article_breadcrumb.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/../../plugins/banner_manager/templates/box_banners.tpl
sql:SELECT * FROM zones WHERE ((id IN (8)))
sql:SELECT b.*, sum(bs.clicks) as num_of_clicks, sum(bs.impressions) as num_of_impressions, ((SUM(bs.impressions) * 24 * 60 * 60 * 1000) / (UNIX_TIMESTAMP(NOW()) - UNIX_TIMESTAMP(b.date_from))) as `timeq` FROM banners as b LEFT JOIN banner_statistics As bs ON b.id = bs.banner_id LEFT JOIN banners_zones AS bz ON b.id = bz.banner_id LEFT JOIN `banner_country` AS bc ON b.id = bc.banner_id LEFT JOIN `ip_range` AS ir ON ir.country_id = bc.country_id WHERE ((bz.zone_id IN (8))) AND ((b.status = '1')) AND ((FIND_IN_SET(9, b.category_ids) != 0) OR (FIND_IN_SET(-1, b.category_ids) != 0) OR (FIND_IN_SET(-2, b.category_ids) != 0)) AND ((((ir.ip_from < (911374134)) AND (ir.ip_to > (911374134))) OR (bc.country_id = '0'))) GROUP BY b.id, b.id HAVING (((CASE type_of_lifetime WHEN 1 THEN IF(b.date_from <= NOW(),1,0) WHEN 2 THEN IF(((b.date_from <= NOW()) and (b.date_to > NOW())),1,0) WHEN 3 THEN IF(((b.date_from <= NOW()) and (num_of_clicks IS NULL OR num_of_clicks < b.clicks_pay)),1,0) WHEN 4 THEN IF(((b.date_from <= NOW()) and (num_of_impressions IS NULL OR num_of_impressions < b.impressions_pay)),1,0) ELSE 0 END) = 1)) ORDER BY timeq ASC LIMIT 0,1
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/font_size.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/latest_news_art_sw.tpl
Box cache:Render box_article_list
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/right_article_160_600.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/plugin_image_gallery_lightbox.tpl
sql:SELECT * FROM article_images WHERE ((article_id = '232273')) ORDER BY order_number ASC
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/plugin_multiple_attachments.tpl
sql:SELECT * FROM article_attachments WHERE ((article_id = '232273')) ORDER BY order_number ASC
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/social_facebook.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/article_social_bookmarks.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/article_bottom.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/article_bottom.tpl
Parser:XML_Parser: Space required at XML input line 5:70
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/article_bottom_2.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/comments.tpl
sql:SELECT cm.* FROM comments AS cm WHERE ((cm.article_id = '232273')) AND ((cm.status = '1')) ORDER BY cm.create_dt ASC LIMIT 0,80
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM comments AS cm WHERE ((cm.article_id = '232273')) AND ((cm.status = '1'))
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/comments_add.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/left_banner_1.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/left_banner_article_2.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/news_l1_a.tpl
sql:SELECT a.* FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.id NOT IN (232273)) AND (a.category_id IN (32)) AND (a.status > 0) ORDER BY a.order_num DESC LIMIT 0,8
sql:SELECT u.* FROM users AS u WHERE ((u.userid IN (4)))
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.id NOT IN (232273)) AND (a.category_id IN (32)) AND (a.status > 0)
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/popular_box.tpl
Box cache:Render box_article_list
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/article_tags.tpl
sql:SELECT tg.* FROM tags_groups AS tg LEFT JOIN articles_tags AS at ON at.tags_group_id = tg.id WHERE (at.article_id IN (232273)) AND ((tg.id NOT IN (1)))
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/article_vote.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/category_related.tpl
Box cache:Render box_article_list
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/news_l2_a.tpl
Box cache:Render box_article_list
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/related_news.tpl
sql:SELECT a.* FROM articles AS a INNER JOIN related AS r ON r.related_article_id = a.id WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.status > 0) AND (r.article_id = 232273) ORDER BY r.relevance DESC, a.order_num DESC LIMIT 0,5
sql:SELECT u.* FROM users AS u WHERE ((u.userid IN (9)))
sql:SELECT count(*) AS count FROM articles AS a INNER JOIN related AS r ON r.related_article_id = a.id WHERE (a.created < '2019-04-23 12:21:00') AND (a.status > 0) AND (r.article_id = 232273)
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/plugin_poll.tpl
sql:SELECT id, name, question, start_date, end_date, status FROM poll_questions ORDER BY id desc
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/left_banner_3.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/left_banner_3.tpl
Parser:XML_Parser: Space required at XML input line 7:66
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/footer_top.tpl
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/adv/footer_top.tpl
Parser:XML_Parser: Space required at XML input line 7:66
tpl:/home/noemann/public_html/templates/akhbarona/box/footer.tpl
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/layout_default.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/style.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/forms.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/main_nav.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/article_styles.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/ad_tabs.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/ticker_typer.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/l1.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/plugin_poll.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/layout_default.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/style.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/forms.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/main_nav.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/article_styles.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/ad_tabs.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/ticker_typer.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/l1.css
css:themes/akhbarona210/css/plugin_poll.css
js:js/framework/prototype.js
js:js/control_tabs.js
js:js/functions.js
js:js/protofish-min.js
js:js/ticker_typer.js
js:js/tooltips.js
js:js/framework/builder.js
js:js/framework/effects.js
js:js/stars.js
js:js/glider.js
js:js/ticker.js
js:plugins/poll/js/poll.js
js:js/bookmark.js
js:js/framework/prototype.js
js:js/control_tabs.js
js:js/functions.js
js:js/protofish-min.js
js:js/ticker_typer.js
js:js/tooltips.js
js:js/framework/builder.js
js:js/framework/effects.js
js:js/stars.js
js:js/glider.js
js:js/ticker.js
js:plugins/poll/js/poll.js
js:js/bookmark.js